Comparison between orthodox and critical realism essay

In combining them now, as a fantasy exercise, we might take a clue from Western philosophy, where the seven planets were the basis of the theory in Mediaeval alchemy that there were seven metals.

Comparison between orthodox and critical realism essay

The schools vary on how many of these six are valid paths of knowledge. Samkhya Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism[52] with origins in the 1st millennium BCE.

The universe is described by this school as one created by Purusa-Prakriti entities infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind. Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative.

Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions. For example, it states, From the triad of suffering, arises this inquiry into the means of preventing it. That is useless - if you say so, I say: No, because suffering is not absolute and final.

Like a lamp, they cooperate for a purpose by union of contraries. It operates by means of the three qualities, by mixture, by modification; for different objects are diversified by influence of the several qualities respectively.

Dharma is that from which results the accomplishment of Exaltation and of the Supreme Good. The authoritativeness of the Veda arises from its being an exposition of dharma.

The Supreme Good results from knowledge, produced from a particular dharma, of the essence of the Predicables, Substance, Attribute, Action, Genus, Species and Combination, by means of their resemblances and differences. Each of these four are of two types: A composite, in this philosophy, is defined to be anything which is divisible into atoms.

Whatever human beings perceive is composite, while atoms are invisible. The text is credited to Aksapada Gautama and its composition is variously dated between the sixth and second centuries BCE. False knowledge is not merely ignorance to Naiyayikas; it includes delusion. Correct knowledge is discovering and overcoming one's delusions, and understanding the true nature of the soul, self and reality.

Perception, Inference, Comparison and Word — these are the means of right knowledge. Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object and which is determinate, unnameable and non-erratic. Inference is knowledge which is preceded by perception, and is of three kinds: Comparison is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously well known.

Word is the instructive assertion of a reliable person. It [knowledge] is of two kinds: Soul, body, senses, objects of senses, intellect, mind, activity, fault, transmigration, fruit, suffering and release — are the objects of right knowledge.Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups – JFK, The Moon Landings, etc.

By Wade Frazier. Revised June Introduction. Gary Wean and the JFK Assassination. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.

Philosophy of Dreaming.

Comparison between orthodox and critical realism essay

According to Owen Flanagan (), there are four major philosophical questions about dreaming: 1. How can I be sure I am not always dreaming? The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.

The fifth Platonic Solid, the dodecahedron, Plato obscurely remarks, " the god used for arranging the constellations on the whole heaven" (Timaeus 55). That remark led the great astronomer Johannes Kepler () into an absurd series of speculations about how the orbits of the planets, whose nature for the first time he had accurately .

Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient include six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and are also called the Astika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as authoritative, important source of knowledge.

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