Battery cages Chickens transported in a truck.
Guidelines for improved household poultry production Constraints. The main limitation to improved household poultry production is the extremely high loss of birds before they reach maturity caused by inadequate nutrition and disease.
This loss means that a high proportion of all the eggs laid have to be kept for replacement stock leaving little, if any, surplus for sale or consumption. The main causes of loss are: Clinically the disease is cyclic and occurs at times of climatic and nutritional stress.
The virulent velogenic strain common in Africa and Asia can, but not always, cause up to 80 percent mortality in unvaccinated chickens.
Fowl cholera pasteurellosiscoccidiosis, Gumboro disease infectious Bursal disease and fowl pox can also, to a lesser extent, cause problems in rural flocks. Poor, or non-existent housing, is also a major cause of high losses. Without being able to confine birds at night, it is almost impossible to catch and vaccinate them, although new types of ND vaccine can be administered in the feed.
Shelter can also provide protection for young birds against predators and can ensure that all the eggs are laid in the proper place and not lost. Such hardiness, however, is at the expense of higher levels of productivity and they are less able to exploit the advantages of improved management, nutrition, etc.
Improved management and disease control can have a substantial impact on household economies. Under traditional management the majority of eggs are hatched to ensure sufficient replacements with only the male birds being sold or consumed.
Reduced losses will ensure that more birds could be successfully reared and, assuming the egg laying hens business plan birds can be properly fed, this will allow more eggs to be collected and consumed or sold as a regular source of income.
Potential interventions The basis for any improvement programme will be improved husbandry, notably housing, nutrition and disease control, primarily Newcastle Disease. Most household flocks rely on scavenging and household scraps and, depending on conditions, this is usually adequate for survival and a low level of production.
However, inadequate nutrition, exacerbated by marked seasonal fluctuations, is a major predisposing factor to disease and high mortality. As investments are made in improved animal health, housing and, especially if improved birds are to be introduced, then attention must be given to diet supplementation or feeding a complete diet in the case of totally confined birds.
Conventional feed materials such as maize, wheat, barley, oilcakes, fishmeal, etc. In many developing countries these are in short supply and even compounded feeds may be of dubious quality.
For household production systems, however, there are usually a wide range of locally available feedstuffs that can be used in addition to household scraps. Unless a complete balanced ration is available, the ability to free range is important to allow the birds to feed on insects and worms, green material, etc.
Where appropriate, improved feeding systems troughs, etc. Access to clean water is always essential and a source of calcium ideally ground oyster shell is highly recommended.
Control of Newcastle Disease ND and other health constraints. Effective vaccines have been available against most strains of ND for a long time. However, there are a number of issues that need to be addressed: The majority of vaccines are still highly sensitive to temperature and fall within this class.
Conventional vaccines are sold in large dose vials, usually 1 doses, aimed at the commercial producer but unsuitable for use at the village or household level.
Village flocks are usually small, scattered and multi-aged which makes them difficult to target by mass vaccination campaigns.
Catching free range, often semi-feral chickens to vaccinate them individually has always proved difficult. Vaccination of a multi-age flock has to be undertaken on a continuous basis monthly to be effective.
The primary advantage is that it no longer requires a complete cold chain to maintain its potency. Queensland University in Australia has made available free to laboratories in developing countries a seed virus, designated I2, to those who wish to explore the possibilities of vaccine production.
This opens the door for producing with intermediate levels of technology, the fresh not freeze-dried vaccine at regional laboratories for use within a few weeks of production.
In addition, a commercial V4 vaccine is also available, but not in large quantities and it remains expensive. Potentially these vaccines offer the possibility of overcoming the problems of transport, storage and the difficulty of catching individual chickens. They are not, however, available everywhere, and applying the vaccine to feeds is not without problems.
The question of who produces the vaccine remains an issue and experience has shown that projects may be able to introduce the technology but often production ceases once external inputs are removed. There is often little difference, however, in cost between and 1 dose vials.
Almost all birds in rural flocks are infected with a variety of internal parasites which cause reduced growth rate, weight loss and lower egg production. Strategically timed treatment s with inexpensive anthelmintics e.Some poultry farmers raise chicks into egg-laying hens or breeders.
Once you have determined that type of poultry farmer you want to be, you need to get a job working on that type of farm. Here's a description of the job duties of each type of poultry farmer.
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5 SMALL-SCALE EGG PRODUCTION Reasons for keeping hens Ø You can provide eggs for your family by keeping 12 hens.
The hens will lay 9 to 10 eggs each day. In this way you can even start your own small business. A recent MOTHER EARTH NEWS study found that compared to conventional American eggs, real free-range eggs have less cholesterol and saturated fat, plus more vitamins A and E, beta carotene and.
This guide is for businesses involved in the production and packing of hen eggs for human consumption, including hen laying establishments and egg packing centres. It explains regulations on the.