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Ocean current Wind blowing over the surface of the sea causes friction at the interface between air and sea. Not only does this cause waves to form but it also makes the surface seawater move in the same direction as the wind. Although winds are variable, in any one place they predominantly blow from a single direction and thus a surface current can be formed.
Westerly winds are most frequent in the mid-latitudes while easterlies dominate the tropics. There are five main gyres in the world's oceans: Other smaller gyres are found in lesser seas and a single gyre flows around Antarctica. These gyres have followed the same routes for millennia, guided by the topography of the land, the wind direction and the Coriolis effect.
The surface currents flow in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The water moving away from the equator is warm, and that flowing in the reverse direction has lost most of its heat.
These currents tend to moderate the Earth's climate, cooling the equatorial region and warming regions at higher latitudes. A main deep ocean current flows through all the world's oceans and is known as the thermohaline circulation or global conveyor belt.
This movement is slow and is driven by differences in density of the water caused by variations in salinity and temperature. Both these factors make it denser, and the water sinks. From the deep sea near Greenland, such water flows southwards between the continental landmasses on either side of the Atlantic.
When it reaches the Antarctic, it is joined by further masses of cold, sinking water and flows eastwards. It then splits into two streams that move northwards into the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Here it is gradually warmed, becomes less dense, rises towards the surface and loops back on itself. Some flows back into the Atlantic.
It takes a thousand years for this circulation pattern to be completed. When waves meet a shore at an angle, a longshore current is created as water is pushed along parallel to the coastline.
The water swirls up onto the beach at right angles to the approaching waves but drains away straight down the slope under the effect of gravity. The larger the breaking waves, the longer the beach and the more oblique the wave approach, the stronger is the longshore current. It may occur at a gap in a sandbar or near a man-made structure such as a groyne.
This cold water is often rich in nutrients and creates blooms of phytoplankton and a great increase in the productivity of the sea. Tide High tides blue at the nearest and furthest points of the Earth from the Moon Tides are the regular rise and fall in water level experienced by seas and oceans in response to the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the effects of the Earth's rotation.Free Essay: Aim To investigate the effects of increasing salinity on potato cell mass.
Effect of Different Concentrations of Salt on Potato Cell Mass; Effect of Different Concentrations of Salt on Potato Cell Mass. Words Sep 9th, 6 Pages. Aim To investigate the effects of increasing salinity on potato cell mass. Background Information. After 7 days of watering each plant, on day 7 pour ml of solution (varying saline concentrations (see appendix B)) into each subject recording which subject receives the specified amount of saline water by labelling the subject as seen in appendix D.
Environmental Science" the atmosphere during the 's, with fossil fuel combustion responsible for the remaining 80%. The possibility of climate change arises from the scientific concern that higher carbon dioxide concentrations will change future climate.
However, as salt concentrations increase, negative impacts occur. Eventually salt concentrations will affect the germination of seeds. Excessive salinity is presently costing the . Salinity Concentrations Essay - Background Information Salinity; found in two common forms - soil salinity and water salinity, plays a key part in the life of a plant.
As their name may suggest, soil salinity is a salt concentration . Go back and do salt concentrations that are half your original and that will probably work. You do that by putting half the amount of salt in the water, or by putting double the .