Introduction This essay is going to assess colonialism and the class structure inherited as a main determinant of current development in Latin American countries. First of all, we must highlight statistics published by the World Bank:
Her first term spanned from toduring which she enjoyed massive public approval. Similar progress has been made throughout Latin America, with women now occupying seats in parliaments and presidential palaces across the region.
But in spite of these strides, violence against women and economic disparity between genders remain exceptionally high, leaving much room for progress in the Latin American quest for gender equality.
InBachelet was the first woman to win a Chilean presidential election. Although Chinchilla will step down this spring, all of these women are in power today. The total population of their countries is upwards of million — meaning that they collectively represent nearly half of Latin America.
In that fight, these chief executives will have many powerful female allies in Latin American legislatures. In Latin America as a whole, women occupy more than a quarter of the total parliamentary seats.
This renders the region second only to Scandinavia, which is governed by parliaments that are 42 percent female on average. Given that the world average is The legacy of Lutz and other early 20th century advocates has been proudly carried on: Instead, contradictory heritages of feminism and patriarchy have determined the paths of Presidents Bachelet, Rousseff, Kirchner and Chinchilla.
In all six of the presidential elections they have won, these four women have received clear mandates from their countries. In her most recent election last December, Bachelet trounced her opponent — Evelyn Matthei — with 62 percent of the vote.
In her victory, Kirchner received 54 percent in the first round of voting, which was the best performance and biggest margin in that round since The wide margins of victory that these leaders have enjoyed are suggestive of a strong willingness — and even eagerness — on the part of Latin American voters to elect a woman.
But these promising results carry with them several hidden truths.
Each of the four female presidents currently in power had strong ties to the men who preceded them, suggesting that their rise to power — however groundbreaking — still relied on support from the male establishment.
Bachelet served as health minister and then defense minister under Chilean President Ricardo Lagos Escobar interviewed on page 40who enjoyed widespread popularity.
When Lula stepped down as president, his approval rating was above 80 percent and he drew immense support from the poor northeastern part of the country. BeforeRousseff had never run for elected office. She succeeded his administration in after being elected to the presidency.
Similarly, the rise of women to parliaments in Latin America has been made possible mostly through significant institutional efforts. InArgentina implemented a quota requiring that a minimum of 30 percent of legislative candidates be women. Today, similar quotas exist in more than a dozen countries in the region.
There is a great deal of variability in these laws, in terms of both the percentage they require ranging from 20 to 50 percent and the degree to which they are enforced. There is also variability in how the quotas are implemented: Some quota regulations contain loopholes that make them ineffective, while others have proven immensely vital to the promotion of female politicians.
In some countries, party efforts to attract women voters have led to quota systems despite a lack of central government policies. Overall, the quota system has proven to be effective in quickly offsetting male-dominated platforms where women used to be largely overlooked.
These four leaders also came to power at ideal times, benefiting from strong support for their parties in other parts of government. This should facilitate the implementation of her agenda for more socioeconomic equality in Chile.
Like Bachelet and Kirchner, Rousseff began her term alongside a congressional sweep by her party and its coalition.Introduction. Sources for the study of the history of women in Latin America’s national period grew exponentially in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, both in the English-speaking world and, to a lesser extent, in Latin America itself.
Following the model of the American and French revolutions, most of Latin America achieved its independence by Independence destroyed the old common market that existed under the Spanish Empire after the Bourbon Reforms and created an increased dependence on the financial investment provided by nations which had already begun .
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Since he was first elected in , Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez Frías has reshaped a frail but nonetheless . What is neoliberalism and how did it emerge or come about? This part of the global issues web site looks at this question. "The Levitsky/Roberts work, nonetheless, will stand as the most comprehensive treatment to date of the re-emergence of the Latin American left, and of the variable performance in office of the 'first generation' of left and centre-left governments.".