Introduction Knowledge Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. Newton's " Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy " is classified in the s as a book of physics; he used the term " natural philosophy " because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as astronomymedicine and physics. Metaphysical philosophy "logic" was the study of existencecausation, Godlogicforms and other abstract objects "meta ta physika" lit: Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology.
It tries to discover the nature of truth and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life. It also examines the relationships between humanity and nature and between the individual and society. Philosophy arises out of wonder, curiosity, and the desire to know and understand.
Philosophy is thus a form of inquiry--a process of analysis, criticism, interpretation, and speculation. The term philosophy cannot be defined precisely because the subject is so complex and so controversial.
Different philosophers have different views of the nature, methods, and range of philosophy. The term philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. In that sense, wisdom is the active use of intelligence, not something passive that a person simply possesses.
These early philosophers tried to discover the basic makeup of things and the nature of the world and of reality.
For answers to questions about such subjects, people had largely relied on magic, superstition, religion, tradition, or authority. But the Greek philosophers considered those sources of knowledge unreliable. Instead, they sought answers by thinking and by studying nature.
Philosophy has also had a long history in some non-Western cultures, especially in China and India. But until about years ago, there was little interchange between those philosophies and Western philosophy, chiefly because of difficulties of travel and communication.
As a result, Western philosophy generally developed independently of Eastern philosophy. The Importance of Philosophy Philosophic thought is an inescapable part of human existence. Almost everyone has been puzzled from time to time by such essentially philosophic questions as "What does life mean?
Even a person who claims that considering philosophic questions is a waste of time is expressing what is important, worthwhile, or valuable.
A rejection of all philosophy is in itself philosophy. By studying philosophy, people can clarify what they believe, and they can be stimulated to think about ultimate questions.
There are people who simply enjoy reading the great philosophers, especially those who were also great writers. Philosophy has had enormous influence on our everyday lives. The very language we speak uses classifications derived from philosophy.
For example, the classifications of noun and verb involve the philosophic idea that there is a difference between things and actions. If we ask what the difference is, we are starting a philosophic inquiry. Every institution of society is based on philosophic ideas, whether that institution is the law, government, religion, the family, marriage, industry, business, or education.
Philosophic differences have led to the overthrow of governments, drastic changes in laws, and the transformation of entire economic systems.
Such changes have occurred because the people involved held certain beliefs about what is important, true, real, and significant and about how life should be ordered. Democratic societies stress that people learn to think and make choices for themselves.
Nondemocratic societies discourage such activities and want their citizens to surrender their own interests to those of the state. The Branches of Philosophy Philosophic inquiry can be made into any subject because philosophy deals with everything in the world and all of knowledge.
But traditionally, and for purposes of study, philosophy is divided into five branches, each organized around certain distinctive questions. The branches are 1 metaphysics, 2 epistemology, 3 logic, 4 ethics, and 5 aesthetics.
Metaphysics is the study of the fundamental nature of reality and existence and of the essences of things. Metaphysics is itself often divided into two areas--ontology and cosmology. Ontology is the study of being.Philosophy is the bridge between thought and existence, truth and being, the internal and the external, Dasein and being-in-the world, aletheia and benjaminpohle.com Heidegger, "thinking of being, wants.
Philosophy attempts to include all fields of pertinence into they’re study and analysis. Philosophers attempt to tie up the loose ends of other fields of study so there is coherence of understanding from one field to the other.
Philosophical presuppositions underpin every field of study and. The Significance and Impact of Russian Thought: 12 theses. 1. In the modern epoch, Russia was the first non-Western nation to challenge Eurocentric historical models and cultural canons, such as rationalism, legalism, individualism, and offer an alternative model of civilization (the dispute between Slavophiles and Westernizers).
This doesn't mean that each branch of philosophy is entirely autonomous -- there is often much overlap between some fields, in fact. For example, political and legal philosophy often cross with ethics and morality, while metaphysical questions are common topics in the philosophy of religion.
The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought. The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A.
Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A. Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy).
Aristotle: Logic. Aristotelian logic, after a great and early triumph, consolidated its position of influence to rule over the philosophical world throughout the Middle Ages up until the 19 th Century. All that changed in a hurry when modern logicians embraced a new kind of mathematical logic and pushed out what they regarded as the antiquated and clunky method of syllogisms.