The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Thus, it was an important factor in the eventual Communist defeat of the Nationalist forces in
The political and economic development of Japan stood in stark contrast to that of China. The Meiji Restoration of the late 19th century had propelled Japan into the modern world. The Japanese had tapped into Western knowledge to develop an industrialised economy.
The Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed in Aprilsaw China surrender control of the Liaodong peninsula, west of Korea, and the island of Taiwan.
Six years later, following the disastrous Boxer Rebellion, Japan won the right to station troops in eastern Manchuria, giving them a military stronghold on the Chinese mainland.
The collapse of the Qing dynasty in allowed Japan to further expand its sphere of influence in China. In the Japanese government issued Chinese president Yuan Shikai with a set of 21 territorial and concessional demands, which Shikai had no choice but to accept.
An incident in Mukden, Manchuria in September provided the Japanese with the pretext for a full military invasion of Manchuria.
Once established there, the Japanese set up the puppet state of Manchukuo and installed the last Qing emperor, Puyias its ineffectual head of state.
In May the Nationalist president Jiang Jieshiwho was more concerned with fighting the communists than Japanese imperialists, signed the Tanggu Truce, effectively recognising the legitimacy of the Manchukuo puppet state.
After Japanese troops opened fire on local soldiers a brief ceasefire was negotiated, however, both sides increased military numbers in the region. The Nationalist armies attempted to resist the invasion but were quickly overcome by the technological supremacy and preparedness of the Japanese.
Unlike the Japanese, the Chinese military had no tanks and only a few aircraft. Almost a half million Japanese troops moved against Shanghai, Nanjing and other locations in mainland China, while Japanese military planes bombarded regions where their foot soldiers could not penetrate.
In late the Nationalist government was forced to retreat from its capital, Nanjing, to Chongqing in western China. A Chinese baby who survived a Japanese air raid on Shanghai in Japanese troops were notorious for their brutal treatment of civilians and military prisoners.
Estimates suggest that the Japanese massacredpeople in and around the city, many of them civilians. Thousands of civilians were buried alive, machine-gunned or used for bayonet practice.
Prisoners there were injected with diseases like anthrax, smallpox, cholera, dysentery and typhoid. Other experiments studied the effects of food deprivation and extreme cold; amputation without anaesthesia; and the effects of chemical weapons and flamethrowers. The Japanese also air-bombed cities like Ningbo and Changde with fleas carrying bubonic plague.
While Jiang Jieshi had some early assistance from Soviet Russian leader Joseph Stalinthe Nationalists had little support from foreign powers. In June Jiang ordered the dykes of the Yellow River dam to be blown, a desperate attempt to slow the advance of the Japanese invasion.
While this ploy worked, it also caused a devastating flood that killed betweento one million Chinese civilians, rendered up to ten million homeless and ruined millions of acres of important farmland.
Beyond the Sino-Japanese war reached a virtual stalemate. By the Japanese controlled the entire north-eastern coast and areas up to miles inland. They installed a puppet government in Nanjing under Wang Jingweia former Guomindang leader and political rival to Jiang Jieshi.First Sino-Japanese War, –95, conflict between China and Japan for control of Korea in the late 19th cent.
The Li-Ito Convention of provided for mutual troop withdrawals and advance notification of any new troop movements into Korea. Oct 06, · What if the Qing dynasty manages to decisively defeat the Japanese in the war.
with the Beiyang fleet annihilating the Japanese fleet during their battles. Sino-Japanese War The Chinese battleship Zhenyuan captured by the Japanese during the Sino-Japanese War, In the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ended the conflict, China recognized the independence of Korea and ceded Taiwan, the adjoining Pescadores, and .
Jul 18, · The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, , to September 9, It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle.
Second Sino-Japanese War: History of the Second Sino-Japanese War (–45), a conflict between China and Japan for control of China. Sep 26, · The reason this was re-uploaded because my pictures was not completed yet so here the edited version.
Hopefully you enjoyed this one better than my original.